A virus hides from the immune system using exosomes from the intercellular communication system or an exosome is the virus?
‘Le microbe n’est rien, le terrain est tout. (The microbe is nothing, the terrain is everything)’. The last words of Louis Pasteur, father of the ‘Germ Theory’ of disease. See more in: Pasteur vs. Bechamp: An Alternative View of Infectious Disease
Rudolf Steiner wurde nach der Spanischen Grippe 1918 gefragt: ‘Worum ging es hier?
‘Nun, Viren sind einfach Ausscheidungen einer toxischen Zelle. Viren sind einfach Stücke von RNA oder DNA mit einigen anderen Proteinen, die aus der Zelle ausgebrochen sind. Es passiert, wenn die Zellen vergiftet sind. Sie sind nicht die Ursache von irgendetwas.’
The Journal of Biological Chemistry: Vol.262, 9412-9420, 1987
Rose M. Johnstone, Mohammed Adam, James R. HammondS, LindaOrrO, and Claire Turbide
Vesicle Formation during Reticulocyte Maturation
Since general cell maturation and transferrin receptor loss occurred at approximately the same rate, we considered the possibility, examined in this report, that vesicle release may provide a general mechanism for loss of surface membrane components which are known to decrease during red cell maturation.
The Journal of Cell Biology: Volume 162, Number 6, 960, 2003
When is a virus an exosome
A bold new theory suggests that retroviruses have hijacked an intercellular communication system for both their biogenesis and spread. The concept, outlined by Stephen Gould, Amy Booth, and James Hildreth (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) has implications for HIV treatment and immunization strategies.
Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine: 7, 780–788, 2011
Rebecca A. Dragovic, Christopher Gardiner, Alexandra S. Brooks, Dionne S. Tannetta, David J.P. Ferguson, Patrick Hole, Bob Carr, Christopher W.G. Redman, Adrian L. Harris, Peter J. Dobson, Paul Harrison, Ian L. Sargent
Sizing and phenotyping of cellular vesicles using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis
Here we describe nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a new associated with the above methods. NTA relates the rate of brownian motion to particle size. In this system vesicles are visualized by light scattering using a light microscope. A video is taken, and the NTA software tracks the brownian motion of individual vesicles and calculates their size and total concentration.
Proteomics Clin Appl: 9(3-4), 358–367, 2015
Stephanie Boukouris and Suresh MathivananProteomics
Exosomes in bodily fluids are a highly stable resource of disease biomarkers
Biomarkers are tissues and/or bodily fluid-based measurable indicators of a biological condition. Biomarkers include DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites that can reflect an individual’s state of health or disease.
WISSENSCHAFFTPLUS – Das Magazin: 6, 638-644, 2015
Dismantling the Virus Theory 2015
Why should we doubt the existence of viruses? What are viruses and what are they not? How are viruses being scientifically demonstrated to exist? The “measles virus” as an example.
Oncotarget: Vol.7, No.19, 28748-28760, 2016
Simona Taverna, Marco Giallombardo1, Ignacio Gil-Bazo, Anna Paola Carreca, Marta Castiglia, Jorge Chacártegui, Antonio Araujo, Riccardo Alessandro, Patrick Pauwels, Marc Peeters and Christian Rolfo
Exosomes isolation and characterization in serum is feasible in non-small cell lung cancer patients: critical analysis of evidence and potential role in clinical practice
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles of endolysosomal origin, released by several cytotypes in physiological and pathological conditions. Tumor derived exosomes, interacting with other cells of the tumor microenvironment, modulate tumor progression, angiogenic switch, metastasis, and immune escape.
PNAS: 113 (33), 9155-9161, 2016
Esther Nolte-‘t Hoen, Tom Cremer, Robert C. Gallo, and Leonid B. Margolis
Extracellular vesicles and viruses: Are they close relatives?
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by various cells are small phospholipid membrane-enclosed entities that can carry miRNA. They are now central to research in many fields of biology because they seem to constitute a new system of cell–cell communication.
PNAS: 113 (33), 9126-9128, 2016
Extracellular vesicles garner interest from academia and biotech
Extracellular vesicles are the subject of conferences, have had two societies and two journals dedicated to their study, and the NIH has earmarked millions in financing to explore and exploit their biology. However, only 10 years ago, most cell biologists thought that extracellular vesicles were little more than membranous debris.
Current Biology: 28, 435–444, 2018
Exosomes and Ectosomes in Intercellular Communication
Exosomes and ectosomes, two distinct types of extracellular vesicles generated by all types of cell, play key roles in intercellular communication. The formation of these vesicles depends on local microdomains assem- bled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. These microdo- mains govern the accumulation of proteins and various types of RNA associated with their cytosolic surface, followed by membrane budding inward for exosome precursors and outward for ectosomes.
NATURE Communications: 11, 2092, 1-15, 2020
Bong Hwan Sung, Ariana von Lersner, Jorge Guerrero, Evan S. Krystofiak, David Inman, Roxanne Pelletier, Andries Zijlstra, Suzanne M. Ponik, Alissa M. Weaver
A live cell reporter of exosome secretion and uptake
Small extracellular vesicles called exosomes affect multiple autocrine and paracrine cellular phenotypes. Understanding the function of exosomes requires a variety of tools, including live imaging. Our previous live-cell reporter, pHluorin-CD63, allows dynamic subcellular monitoring of exosome secretion in migrating and spreading cells.
Questions and the Henle-Koch postulates
- Why are the routine methods used to purify and isolate exosomes, and extract their genetic material, not used for viruses?
- Exosomes will be present in sick tissue, as well as in petri dish cultures, that are used to ‘find’ viruses. Why are exosomes not mentioned in the viral discovery papers?
- Why are papers describing the difficulty in separating out exosomes from viruses, yet these are not accounted for in viral discovery papers?
- Virology claims isolation of genetic material ‘from a virus’, but does not isolate said particles in the research?
- Is it bad methodology, to claim you have ‘found’ something, that should be isolated, purified, have its genetic material extracted, and also be proven to cause a ‘same’ type of disease, after it has been transferred to a host?
- Seems the exosome research is much further advanced than virology. Can the techniques used in exosome research be put to use in clarifying the above issues?